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Browse all exams to find the exam that interests you. Hands-on experience with the technology is required to successfully pass Microsoft Certification exams. The associated microlearning, online courses, and instructor-led courses are intended to train the skills needed to be successful in the job role, a subset of which will be assessed on the exam. However, because the exam focuses on application of those skills beyond what was taught in these courses, experience or practice in addition to training is strongly recommended prior to taking the exam.
The best way to do this is to actually perform the tasks listed and note any challenges that you encountered. Practice until you no longer experience those challenges. Microsoft Certified Trainers work with many candidates as they prepare for certifications. They often recommend the following steps to help candidates focus their studies:. Additionally, Microsoft Official Practice Tests are available for some of our certification exams. These may provide more information about your specific strengths and weaknesses.
However, passing a practice test is not a guarantee that you will pass the certification exam. If you have taken the exam and not passed, prioritize the skills that you should practice by focusing on the content areas where your exam performance was the weakest and the content areas that have the highest percentage of questions. Visit the exam registration page to find complete instructions.
Microsoft Certification exams are available in several languages. However, candidates who must take the exam in English rather than in their native language can request an accommodation for additional time. Approval for extra time is provided on a case-by-case basis. Microsoft is dedicated to ensuring our exams are accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities.
For a list of available accommodations, please visit the Accommodation page. Exam prices are subject to change. In some countries and regions, additional taxes may apply. If you have feedback about an instructor-led Microsoft training course, provide it directly to the instructor. If you have feedback about a Microsoft online course, complete the feedback form that appears when you finish the course.
Microsoft does not review study materials developed by third parties and is not responsible for their content. If you have questions or comments about exam preparation materials developed by third parties, please contact the publishers directly. If you have a concern about the technical accuracy of a particular item, please follow the Exam Item Challenge process. To report a concern about a testing center or technical difficulties experienced during your exam, please contact customer service at Pearson VUE or Certiport.
To offer other types of feedback, please contact your Microsoft Regional Service Center. To report a security concern, please contact mlsecure microsoft. The case study exam format uses complex scenarios that more accurately simulate what professionals do on the job. Scenario-based questions included in the case studies are designed to test your ability to identify the critical information needed to solve a problem and then analyze and synthesize it to make decisions.
You may review the questions in a case study until you move to the next case or section of the exam. Once you leave a case study, however, you will not be able to review the questions associated with that case. When you complete a case study and its associated questions, a review screen will appear. This screen lets you review your answers and make changes before you move to the next case study.
Case studies are not timed separately from the rest of the exam. The number of case studies in an exam is noted on the exam introduction screen. Manage your exam time accordingly so that you can complete all case studies and all other sections of your exam. We review our cloud-based exams every two months. Any changes that affect the objective domain and the existing questions are incorporated into the exam. Specifically, technically inaccurate questions are removed from the exam; some items are modified, and new items may be created to assess new, but related, skills.
Microsoft reserves the right to update content for any reason at any time to maintain the validity and relevance of our certifications. This includes, but is not limited to, incorporating functionality and features related to technology changes, changing skills needed for success within a job role, etc. We also include information about such updates in our newsletters, blogs, and through other appropriate communication channels, and we encourage you to sign up for such communications if you would like to know about these types of changes to the exam content.
Because our primary communication with candidates about exam content is through the exam details page, we will update it as soon as we know that exam content will be updated for any reason; we strongly recommend that you review the exam details regularly as you prepare to take an exam. If you are preparing for cloud-based exam, we strongly recommend that you regularly check the Exam Details page because we review these exams every two months and updates can happen as frequently as that.
Microsoft makes every attempt possible to keep the training and exam aligned when changes occur; however, that is not always possible. Keep in mind that Microsoft exams are not intended as post-tests of any preparation or training product created by Microsoft or any third-party provider. Our certifications are designed to measure experience-based skills without bias regarding the way candidates obtain these skills. Microsoft does not review study materials developed by third parties and is not responsible for their content or for ensuring that they are updated to reflect product updates.
Microsoft works hard to ensure that some form of training material exists for all skills that will be measured on an exam. A list of these resources can be found on the exam details page. In the short answer question type, you solve a situation by writing several lines of code in the available text-entry area. You can choose from key word options which are provided for you to use in the code you write. Note that this is a general list and not specific to the commands required to solve the problem presented in the question.
When you're done entering your code, you can check your syntax. The syntax checker validates your code entry for syntax errors but does not validate that your entry is correct. We use exact string matches. This is why we include several ways to check your syntax. Most of the short answer questions are worth one point. If the question is worth more than one point, we indicate the number of points that it is worth in the question itself.
No, you are not penalized for answering incorrectly. For single-point items, you need to answer completely and correctly to be awarded the point. Before leaving a section or completing the exam, you can review your answers to most questions. Given the nature of these questions, you are not able to review your answers.
In addition, after you move to the next question in this set, you are not able to change your answer. These questions are preceded by an overview screen that provides this information, and each question includes a reminder that you cannot return to the question or change your answer after leaving it. Because you are not penalized for wrong answers and exams contain some items you cannot review or change your answer to, a good best practice is to answer every question before moving to the next one.
Mark questions for review to return to them if you can. You will receive notification of your pass or fail status within a few minutes of completing your exam. In addition, you will receive a printed report that provides your exam score and feedback on your performance on the skill areas measured. The exam delivery provider will forward your score to Microsoft within five business days.
If you pass the beta exam, you earn credit for that exam and any resulting certification. You do not need to retake the exam in its live version if you pass the beta version. If you do not see your score report online or receive your score report within two weeks after the date when the final exam is published, contact the exam delivery provider for more information on when your results will be processed. If you have questions about your transcript, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Center.
They are sent approximately 6 about 4 weeks after the exam goes live. Using this information, candidates can determine areas of strength and weakness.
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The bar chart shows your performance on each section, or skill area, assessed on the exam. On the left of the graph, each section of the exam is listed along with the percentage of the exam that was devoted to it. The lengths of the bars provide information regarding your section-level performance and map to the percentage of items that you answered correctly in that content area. Bars that are further to the left reflect weaker performance, and bars that are further to the right reflect stronger performance. Because each section may contain a different number of questions, as represented by the percentages provided after the section name, the length of the bars cannot be used to calculate the number of questions answered correctly in that section or on the exam, nor can the bars be combined to determine the percent of questions that you answered correctly on the exam.
This information is intended to help you understand areas of strength and weakness in the skill domain measured by the exam and to prioritize those skills that need improvement. Qualified candidates will be able to pass this exam regardless of the questions asked. As a result, to protect the integrity of the certification process, Microsoft does not share information about the specific questions that were missed. The score reports do not show a numerical score for each section. As an alternative to providing a numerical score for each section, we provide score bars to show subject areas of strength and weakness.
No, we do not provide a lower level of detail on your performance on transition or upgrade exams. We don't ask enough questions at the objective level to provide a reliable estimate of your ability for each of those skills. Providing this level of information would be a disservice to you because the result may indicate that you should work on skills that don't need improvement, or worse, suggest skills are strengths when they are not. Each section of the exam contains a different number of questions; therefore, combining the results across individual exam sections will not reflect your final exam result.
Further, a common misperception is that you must answer 70 percent of the questions correctly to pass the exam because the passing score is ; however, this is a scaled score. The actual percentage of questions that you must answer correctly varies from exam to exam and may be more or less than 70 percent, depending on the input provided by the subject-matter experts who helped us set the cut score during exam development and ongoing sustainment and the difficulty of the questions delivered when you take exam.
Note that this scoring system is subject to change as Microsoft continues to introduce new and innovative question types. Microsoft will indicate if a question is scored differently in the text of the question. After you complete your exam, the points you earned on each question are summed and then compared with the cut score to determine whether the result is pass or fail. Technical exams: All technical exams are scaled such that the passing score is Any score of or greater is a "pass.
The passing score is based on the knowledge and skills needed to demonstrate competence in the skill domain and the difficulty of the questions that are delivered to a candidate. Microsoft Office exams: All Microsoft Office exam scores are reported on a scale of 1 to 1, The passing score varies from exam to exam and is provided on the score report.
Microsoft reports scaled scores so that candidates who have to retake a certification exam can determine if their performance is improving. The actual cut score the number of items you need to answer correctly is based on input from a group of subject-matter experts who review the difficulty of the questions in relation to the expected skills of the target audience.
As a result, the number of items that you have to answer correctly varies depending on the difficulty of the questions delivered when you take the exam; this ensures that regardless of the difficulty of items you see, the evaluation of skills is fair—if you see a more difficult set of questions during one administration, the number of correct answers needed to pass is less than if you see an easier set of questions.
As a result, providing a simple percent correct wouldn't provide useful information to someone who had to take the exam multiple times and saw different combinations of questions with different levels of difficulty.
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The next time you take the exam, you see a set of more difficult items. If we provided the percent you answered correctly, you would think your performance had gotten worse, not better, but it is, in fact, better because you answered a higher percentage of more difficult questions correctly than you did the first time. Scaled scores simplify your ability to evaluate improvements in your performance over time.
This is a standard practice across the certification and licensure industry. If you pass an exam, it simply means that you have demonstrated competence in the skill domain. In addition, scores of candidates who pass cannot be compared to determine if one candidate is more competent than another; higher passing scores do not mean higher levels of competence. The same is true of failing scores; lower failing scores do not mean lower levels of competence.
If you pass the exam, you have demonstrated competence regardless of your score; if you fail, you have not demonstrated competence. Our exams are not designed with the intent to provide diagnostic feedback about your skills, and steps are not taken during the exam development process to support that level of reporting.
Receiving the same score on multiple attempts does not indicate that the program computing the results is in error. It is not uncommon for candidates to obtain similar or identical scores on multiple attempts of an exam. This consistent result demonstrates the reliability of the exam in evaluating skills in this content domain. Given that the number of questions varies based on the criticality of skills measured, it is entirely possible for a candidate to answer all questions in a section with fewer questions incorrectly.
A delay between questions does not impact the responses, scoring, or the time remaining to finish the exam. You should expect to experience a delay of up to a minute while your next question loads. Your answers are recorded, and the exam will be scored correctly regardless of delays between questions. The survey that you take at the beginning of the exam has no impact on the exam content or scoring. This is purely an evaluation tool that our exam psychometricians use to ensure the quality, validity, and rigor of the exam over its lifecycle.
To explore next steps and available benefits, see your benefits and exams dashboard. Sign in using the same Microsoft account you used to register for your exam. Prioritize the skills that you should practice by focusing on the content areas where your exam performance was the weakest and in the content areas that have the highest percentage of questions. Additionally, you may want to review the resources provided on the exam details page, and our Study Groups, which can be found at the bottom of the individual exam details page.
When you are ready to retake the exam, schedule an appointment as you normally would. Although Microsoft Certification exams provide feedback about the areas where examinees need to develop their skills further, the exams are not designed to provide detailed or diagnostic feedback. The best way to do this is to actually perform the tasks listed; note any challenges that you encountered.
You may also want to ask others how they perform those tasks. Do they perform the task differently? Understand why they do. Read white papers, visit docs, etc. Finally, Microsoft Official Practice Tests are available for some of our certification exams. Please refer to the Security and retake policies to view the exam retake policy. Because Microsoft must ensure that candidates who pass exams and earn our certifications have demonstrated the required proficiency level s across the skill domain s , the final result of an exam is rarely changed based on a re-evaluation of your exam results. If you have a concern about the technical accuracy of a particular item, please submit an online request.
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An Item Challenge form will be sent to you. If you believe a question on a Microsoft Certification exam is inaccurate, you can request an evaluation of that question using the Exam Item Challenge process within 30 calendar days of taking the exam. The evaluation process helps us identify and correct problematic questions and to update exams accordingly.
A Microsoft employee will conduct an initial evaluation. If additional evaluation is needed, an independent subject-matter expert technical and job-function expert will also review and evaluate the challenge. Microsoft applies a rigorous exam development process to ensure the technical accuracy, clarity, relevance, and objectivity of our exams. Furthermore, given the credentials of the independent subject-matter experts and the respect they garner from the IT community, we consider their evaluation final.
To help protect exam security, we keep the rationale for challenge decisions confidential although we will provide a general overview of the result. The evaluation remains a part of Microsoft records until the exam is retired. All feedback is compiled and carefully considered as Microsoft makes decisions on how to improve the overall quality of the exam. The NDA legally requires candidates to keep information related to exam content confidential. Cheating is any fraudulent activity that enables an unqualified candidate to pass an exam.
This type of egregious misconduct negatively affects the integrity of the Microsoft Certification Program. Falsified score reports are reports that Microsoft deems to be unauthentic or that deceive or defraud the Microsoft Certified Professional program in any way. If Microsoft determines that a candidate has falsified a score report, the candidate will be ineligible to take any future Microsoft exams and his or her certifications may be revoked. Proxy testing occurs when someone takes an exam for another candidate.
In other words, the candidate has passed an exam without actually taking it. Engaging in proxy testing as either the test taker or the person who hired the test taker is a form of misconduct and fraud. The primary warning sign of a proxy testing website or organization is any guarantee that you will pass the exam without having to take it. Proxy testing sites indicate that they will provide a full credential if you send them your credit card information.
If a candidate engages in proxy testing, that candidate will be permanently banned or prohibited from taking any future Microsoft Certification exams and may be decertified from the Microsoft Certification Program. Additionally, test scores and certifications, if applicable, may be revoked. These actions may be taken even if the candidate did not intend to defraud the Microsoft Certification Program.
If you believe that a website or company provides proxy test-taking services, please inform Microsoft immediately by sending an email message to mlsecure microsoft. A "brain dump," as it relates to the certification exams, is a source, such as a website, that contains certification exam content that has been fraudulently obtained with the intention to share it with or sell it to exam candidates. The content included in brain dumps is exactly the same or substantially similar to items appearing on the exam.
Because the exam content was fraudulently obtained, using this type of material to prepare for or during an exam constitutes cheating. Eventually, his or her manager will identify this lack of technical knowledge and skill and take appropriate action. In addition, test scores and certifications, if applicable, may be revoked.
Many "brain dump" providers are fairly blatant in their messaging, descriptions of their products, and the intended uses, while others are much more subtle in their messaging and practices. As a result, candidates should be cautious about using exam preparation material that seems too good to be true. The testing centers are provided with security policies that must be enforced in order to acquire and maintain testing center status. Ongoing inspections ensure that each testing center maintains the security outlined by Microsoft and the exam delivery provider.
In addition, proctors at testing centers are authorized to immediately take appropriate measures against candidates who violate testing rules. For specific information about the expectations for candidates, please contact the exam delivery provider. If you have a concern about the security of your exam experience, please send an email message to mlsecure microsoft.
Testing center administrators act inappropriately when they fail to follow any security policies of Microsoft or the exam delivery provider. Examples could include, but are not limited to, overlooking inappropriate candidate identification; failing to ask for an ID from each candidate; failing to conduct periodic walkthroughs; failing to keep partitions between testing stations; overlooking the presence of crib sheets or electronic devices; providing answers or aid in any form with regard to any exam item; and allowing the release of Microsoft intellectual property in any form.
If Microsoft determines that a testing center has acted improperly or fraudulently, Microsoft has the right to cease delivery of all exams at that center. Send an email message to mlsecure microsoft. Although we appreciate anonymous tips, we often need more information to conduct a thorough investigation; if you are willing, please include your full contact information so that someone from Microsoft can contact you to discuss the details, if necessary. Microsoft has dedicated staff that investigates these tips. Because of tips from individuals like you, several websites have been terminated.
Due to the volume of email we receive, you may not always receive a personal response. Read his post, and get ongoing updates on Microsoft certification and training on our Born to Learn blog. All correspondence to mlsecure microsoft. If you wish to include your contact information so that we can follow up for more information we will ensure it remains secure.
Performance based testing gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your skills by completing tasks in the technology. Today, this means completing tasks in a graded lab, but in the future, PBT may take a different form. For example, for those of you who are currently performing the job role, Microsoft is exploring ways to incorporate the work that you do every day into our certification requirements.
Microsoft is constantly innovating to ensure that we assess your skills and abilities in ways that align to how you actually get your work done. This type of question asks you to perform tasks in a virtual environment. You will see a screen that includes a virtual machine window and a Tasks pane. The virtual machine window is a remotely connected live environment where you perform tasks on real software and applications. The Tasks pane lists the tasks you need to perform in the lab. For your convenience, each task has a checkbox so you can mark tasks as you complete them.
Nothing in the lab will indicate if you did not complete a required task, so you may want to keep track of the tasks that you have completed by checking the boxes. After you leave a lab, you will not be able to return to it because scoring starts in the background as soon as you leave a lab or section of the exam. When you click Next , you will be asked to confirm that you really want to leave the lab.
Clicking Yes will end the lab section, and the tasks will be scored. After you launch the exam, you will answer traditional questions for example, multiple choice, drag and drop, build list, etc. When you complete the labs, you will answer another set of traditional questions as the labs are being scored. If you complete the first set of questions too quickly, you may have to wait for the labs to finish provisioning.
Please note the following:. For a variety of reasons, we cannot assess all critical skills with labs. If an exam contains labs, it will have at least 1 lab. Each lab contains between 7—15 tasks. One of the introductory pages of the exam will show the number of labs and tasks. The tasks are scored on the end result. We do not care how you accomplish the tasks for example, through the UI or using PowerShell commands —only that you successfully accomplished the task. Complete the task as you normally would; the scoring script evaluates the end result on the key characteristics to determine if it was done correctly.
For example, if the task was to add a user, the scoring script ensures that you added that user. We do NOT require you to use a specific method to perform tasks. We test you on the end result of your task—did you perform it correctly? Most tasks are worth one point; if the task is worth more than one point, that information is provided in the task description. Labs are not timed separately from the exam. At the beginning of the exam, the number of labs, case studies, and questions as well as the exam time will be provided. You must answer all questions, including completing tasks associated with any labs, in the time provided.
Manage your time accordingly so that you can complete all activities that must be done. The labs are designed to be completed within the exam time provided. You will not be asked to perform tasks that execute long running operations or tasks that have many dependencies. If important skills need to be assessed that are based on tasks that require long running operations or have many dependencies, we will either assess them with traditional items, or, if possible, set up the labs so that these operations have already taken place, and then you will perform tasks that logically build on the outcomes of those operations.
Like all questions on the exam, lab tasks map to the objective domain. We select the tasks that best lend themselves to lab-based assessment, that do not require long execution times or resources, and that can be completed within the anticipated time for test takers to complete the exam. It takes time to provision the environment in the cloud, and the environment you will access to complete the tasks is loaded only when the resources are fully provisioned.
As a result, the exam begins with a series of conventional items multiple choice, drag and drop, build list, etc. If you answer these questions too quickly, you will have to wait for the labs to finish loading. Opening this new tab will resolve the issue most of the time. If you run into issues with labs, please escalate them through our exam item challenge process. No; however, Microsoft does provide options to stay current in the technology and job role that will include performance-based items.
You may take these courses or exams to validate that you are staying current in the job role and technology.
These exams may take longer to complete than exams that do not contain performance-based items; however, our research suggests that most candidates complete tasks more quickly than they complete other item types. The amount of time allotted for each exam takes this into account. The skills measured remain the same regardless of the format of the question.
Exams that include labs require testing centers to meet certain internet connectivity requirements, so a smaller set of testing centers are available. As labs are added to more of the new role-based exams they will also be subject to the same set of testing centers. If you have specific testing centers in mind, contact the specific test center to learn if they can deliver labs; alternately, they will not be listed as available test centers once you select the exam.
If that occurs, we recommend finding a different test center or taking the exam through online proctoring. They remain on your transcript. The relevance of those certifications depends on your current and future job roles and how valuable that certification is to your manager and organization and to the work that you do. As we retire the exams that are part of those certification paths, you will no longer be able to earn those certifications.
The relevance of this certification depends on your current and future job roles and how valuable that certification is to your manager and organization and to the work that you do. No, we are not reducing the amount of experience that people need to pass the exams or earn our certifications. Training is designed to prepare people for the exams, but in of itself is likely to be insufficient. The questions on our role-based exams require you to apply the skills and knowledge acquired in training real world problems. As long as you participate in those activities at least once per year, your certification will remain active.
If you do not stay current, you will need to re-earn your certification. Re-earning a certification is the same as recertifying; it means that you did not stay current. In other words, you have allowed your skills to become outdated and your certification to expire; you must meet the requirements of the certification again e.
Our job role-based certifications may be renewed indefinitely, but without staying current , they will expire; if this happens, you will need to re-earn the certification. As long as you participate in those activities at least once per year, your certification will remain active, and you will have demonstrated your commitment to keeping your skills in alignment with the changes in the cloud.
You can take a stay current course as often as you want. It is updated three times per year and focuses on changes that occurred in the in the last 4 months. If you decide to register and pay for an exam before you have verified your student status, you must pay commercial pricing and will not receive a refund. You must ensure that you are verified before completing your registration and payment. Your academic verification is only valid for 12 months.
After 12 months, you need to repeat the verification process. You need to follow the same process as a student. If you have general questions related to exam registration, contact your Microsoft Regional Service Center. For questions specific to a new or pending verification request, you may contact Support.
More details are provided in the Special Accommodations when Taking an Exam section above. The documentation that you provide describes your disability to the Pearson Special Accommodations team. Pearson has experts that determine the appropriate accommodation Your documentation ensures that the exam experience is adjusted appropriately. Someone with dyslexia, for example, is typically on a spectrum of severity and the exam accommodations are therefore appropriately adjusted for that level of severity as described in the documentation.
This documentation consists of a formal assessment from a medical professional within the last 5 years. Someone with mild dyslexia may need 1. The intent is to make the exam session fair to the candidate considering their need while maintaining the validity and reliability of the assessment process. Disabilities change over time.
They can become more or less severe. As a result, the accommodation that would be provided based on the outdated documentation may no longer be appropriate. The more up to date your documentation, the more likely VUE will be able to provide an accommodation that meets your needs.
This is considered a comfort aid and does not require pre-approval. Comfort aids will be allowed in the testing room upon visual inspection by the Test Center staff.
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Candidate bans If a candidate violates any testing rule, exam policy, or term within the exam agreement NDA , or engages in any misconduct that diminishes the security and integrity of the Microsoft Certification Program in any way, the candidate may be permanently prohibited from taking any future Microsoft Certification exams.
A candidate may appeal a ban for falsifying a score report by submitting the original report no scans or electronic copies to: Microsoft Worldwide Learning Security Team One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA The Microsoft Worldwide Learning Security Team will review all submitted appeal requests, conduct a thorough investigation of each specific case and will communicate directly with the candidate regarding the conclusion of the investigation and final appeal decision.
Exam retake policy General Microsoft Certified Professional MCP exam retake policy If a candidate does not achieve a passing score on an exam the first time, the candidate must wait at least 24 hours before retaking the exam. If a candidate does not achieve a passing score the second time, the candidate must wait at least 14 days before retaking the exam a third time. A day waiting period is also imposed for the fourth and fifth subsequent exam retakes.
A candidate may not take a given exam any more than five times per year 12 months. This month period starts the day of the fifth unsuccessful exam retake. The candidate is then eligible to retake the exam 12 months from that date. To take a given exam more than five times per year or to have the time between attempts waived, a candidate must submit a request and obtain prior permission from Microsoft.
Requests should be sent to mlsecure microsoft. These requests should include the following information: MCID Name Email Exam Number If a candidate achieves a passing score on an exam, the candidate cannot take the exam again. Microsoft reserves the right to make some exams available for retake For a complete list of exams that can be retaken annually, click here.
Microsoft Technology Associate MTA and Microsoft Certified Educator MCE exam retake policy If a candidate does not achieve a passing score on an exam the first time, the candidate must wait 24 hours before retaking the exam. If a candidate does not achieve a passing score the second time, the candidate must wait seven days before retaking the exam a third time. A seven-day waiting period is imposed for each subsequent exam retake.
If a candidate achieves a passing score on an MTA exam, the candidate cannot take it again. Microsoft Office Specialist MOS exam retake policy If a candidate does not achieve a passing score on an exam the first time, the candidate must wait 24 hours before retaking the exam. If a candidate does not achieve a passing score the second time, the candidate must wait 2 days 48 hours before retaking the exam a third time. A two-day waiting period will be imposed for each subsequent exam retake. There is no annual limit on the number of attempts on the same exam. If a candidate achieves a passing score on an Office exam, the candidate may take it again.
MCP beta exam retake policy Beta exams may be taken only once during the beta period. If the candidate passes the exam, it counts toward credit for the certification. If the candidate fails the exam, it can be retaken per the policies above. This policy supersedes the general retake policy.
Exam-specific retake policy exceptions In some cases, Microsoft may have special policies for specific exams. Microsoft reserves the right to make some exams available for retake. For a complete list of exams that can be retaken annually, click here. Testing center closures due to security reasons Microsoft may suspend testing at any location where we deem there is a security or integrity problem. Microsoft may suspend testing at sites that are related to test sites that pose security risks.
Testing center appeal process Testing center owners can appeal a site closure by submitting an appeal to mlsecure microsoft. Data forensics Microsoft will use data forensics as a basis for an enforcement action against a candidate. If you are a legitimate resident of that country, note the following: Testing centers in these three countries are required to confirm and record that each Microsoft Certification candidate has shown documented proof that he or she is a legitimate resident of that specific country.
Candidate retesting at request of Microsoft Microsoft reserves the right to ask any candidate to retest for any suspected fraudulent activity or anomalous testing patterns at any time. Retesting will take place at a facility that is selected by Microsoft at a time agreed upon by Microsoft and the candidate.
Revoking certifications If a candidate violates any testing rule, exam policy, or term within the exam agreement NDA , or engages in any misconduct that diminishes the security and integrity of the Microsoft Certification Program in any way, the candidate may be permanently prohibited from taking any future Microsoft Certification exams.
Right of exclusion Based on security and integrity concerns, Microsoft reserves the right to exclude specific regions, countries, and testing centers from the Microsoft Certification Program altogether. Beta exams Approximately people can take the beta exam at a reduced rate. Members whose skills align to the exam content area will receive an email containing this code; this code is unique for this group. Watch our community blog for information about upcoming beta exams.
These posts will contain a code that can be used to receive a discount on the exam. These posts are usually posted on the day that registration opens for a beta exam. This code is different than the one sent to SMEs who are part of our database. Note that seats are limited and available on a first come, first served basis. Applying student status through your account profile Sign in with your Microsoft account credentials. Select Profile settings from the Account menu at the top of the page. Applying student status when registering for an exam Sign in with your Microsoft account credentials.
On the exam for which you want to register, click Schedule exam. Verifying your academic status Select the method you wish to use to verify your status. Examples of misconduct include: Providing access to, disclosing, distributing, copying, photographing, recording, downloading, posting, displaying, publishing or transmitting any exam or Exam Related Information in any form or by any means. Misrepresenting Your identity or impersonating another individual.
Modifying or altering the exam, exam score or any exam record. Submitting any work or answers that are not entirely Your own. Some add the aspects of social policy social justice and social cohesion, f. They define a voucher as a tied demand-side subsidy, where public dollars or euros follow consumers rather than suppliers, with the objective of fostering competition on the supply side and choice on the demand side in order to improve efficiency in the delivery of classes of social goods and services, and enhance autonomy on the part of consumers of those goods and services.
It is also important that a voucher works as an incentive for both the demand side and the supply side. In theory suppliers have to compete for demanders of services in a responsive way by offering high quality and cost-effective services. There different fields in which vouchers are practically used to support policy interventions like education, health, innovation SMEs , etc. This report focusses on vouchers in the field of active labour market policy ALMP and even inside this policy field there are several different areas of vouchers: 1.
Job subsidy vouchers see the Belgian example in part 4. Placement voucher see the German example in part 4. Most relevant in the field of labour market policy: the Training voucher. In this case eligible individuals can select among a defined sample of training providers to improve their employability. Usually the providers have to fulfil specific quality standards. But it may be also something like 7. If we look at practical problems which arise in training contexts, Auer et al.
Source: de Gier, , p. Furthermore, providers can access the market more easily than in a contracting-out system, where the range of providers is limited by the public purchaser. Two advantages may be expected: Participants hold the financial means in their own hands and motivate the providers to improve their offers to the needs of their clients. Secondly, this should also encourage providers to organize their offerings as cost- effectively as possible as those looking for courses would to take as much high quality continuing education as possible.
In that sense vouchers are consistent with the Principle of Subsidiarity. Third, institutional factors such as minimum wages or collectively negotiated wages might drive a wedge between individual productivity and wages. Of course, the longer term effects of the subsidy depend on the issue whether the gap between the expected returns and costs of employment to the firm can be closed during the subsidization period. This leads to sub-optimal program choice and may diminish effectiveness and impact of ALMP measures.
This paper focusses on subsidies in form of vouchers within selected European countries. Studying and using relevant lessons learned in these countries shall give the opportunity of improving the recently established voucher-system VS in Ukraine. Before going in the details of European experiences of training voucher systems as instruments of labour market policy we will briefly introduce experiences with VS in developing countries.
But we will start with the USA, the home of educational vouchers. But may be the first federal labour market training voucher system was introduced in the US in , with the introduction of the Work Investment Act WIA. It prioritized job placement over training and shifted from targeted low-income populations to universal access to services. The new approach was based on an evaluation report in on the economic impacts of employment and training programs which analysed the supply side oriented job training program system.
Consequently the Work Investment Act introduced fundamental changes to the structure of the US job training system: As a consequence individual training accounts or training vouchers were introduced and specific performance measures see Annex 1 had been introduced. Results, Effectiveness and Impact of the Work Investment Act Evaluation research on the on the effectiveness and impact of the voucher system within the WIA shows difficulties for long term unemployed using such an individual training accounts-system which created a reduction of the demand for vouchers.
Assessment of the quality of training providers and counselling on content of training to make a more adequate choice shall be part of the voucher implementation system. The public administration needs the complex management for results and has to involve learning over time.
We will shortly introduce the cases of Kenya and Uganda4 because these cases are evidence based and at least partly evaluated. Further using Voucher Systems VS in developing countries shows the relevance of the transformation aspect, using experiences in certain countries for developing VS in other countries. Two impact evaluations recently provide good examples of the new evidence on effective programs to promote skills development.
In Kenya, the World Bank supported a special voucher program for young adults started in In both cases, the voucher nearly covered the cost of a public or private vocational program. Among program participants, the average years of schooling was 8. An initial evaluation of the program in Kenya see Hicks et al, indicated that offering training vouchers to young adults result in an increase in application for vocational training programs and can be an effective way to give job seekers employable skills.
The Kenyan voucher program shows that youth will join job training when the costs are covered through vouchers. Hence, voucher programs can boost demand for vocational training and integrating childcare could support program acceptance. In the case of Uganda we talk about a program in which young people got cash grants to start a new business or getting trained. The most popular training program was tailoring, followed by carpentry, metalworking and hairdressing. About 13 percent of those who got grants re-enrolled in secondary school, compared with 10 percent of those in the control group. WB a In the constrained credit markets of many developing countries, this impact evaluation shows that in certain circumstances, unsupervised cash grants may be used successfully with poor entrepreneurs.
He designed a voucher system for education already in see de Gier, , p. But vouchers are thus neither clearly better nor worse than other financing instruments. The impact of VS depends on the structural and financial framework conditions and the combination with other elements of education policy. The estimate shows that receiving a voucher increases the probability to participate in an adult education course in by 11 percentage This effect is highly significant.
Self-financed and firm financed adult education is positively associated with future employment p. While participation in continuing education usually falls with age, no age effect was observed in the experimental group. The voucher led to a more even participation in terms of age. A significantly higher level of participation in continuing education on the part of women was observed in both the experimental and control groups.
The vouchers even had the effect of reinforcing this difference in favour of women. A rural-urban pattern with regard to voucher redemption was not observed. Such a pattern could have been expected given that the proximity to continuing education institutions would tend to lead to increased demand for continuing education. Lastly, people in gainful employment made use of the vouchers to a far greater extent than those not in employment.
Vouchers therefore tend to have the effect of increasing the difference in participation between those in gainful employment and those not in employment, and hence people with higher incomes are more likely to participate in continuing education. Vouchers accompanied by the offer of advice were not redeemed more than those where no advice was offered. The term of best practice is known since the 70s of the last century. One way of improving policies in the EU is for governments to look at what is going on in other EU countries and to see what works best.
They can then adopt this 'best practice', adapting it to their own national and local circumstances. There are some examples of definitions of Best Practice in EU context. It seems to be important having realistic expectations when seeking a "best practice" because the practice may not be solving problems at all.
Because a practice seems to be tailored to a specific policy problem and also based on solid research, it does not necessarily mean it is creating best results. In this study we will use good practice in terms of 'what works' in the context of voucher systems. Good practice solutions need not be best practice, particularly since often can be difficult to determine the best solution. The procedure is to determine good solutions and to use it for improvements. Existing experiences are systematized, compared and assessed. On this basis, it is to be decided what is good practices and what is practical to achieve defined goals.
It is As a result usually there are several solutions. We introduce here examples best practices as defined by the EU itself. Further, in such analyses additionally the macro-economic effects and unintended side- effects especially dead-weight losses, substitution or displacement are checked usually. Such complex processes help to get more information on the net effects or the A lot of European countries have made experiences with the usage of vouchers as an instrument of labour market policy implementation. This fact makes it necessary to select the most relevant countries to be introduced in the report.
For this choice it was necessary to develop specific criteria. The following criteria had been used to select the most relevant countries which are using vouchers successfully: 1. Regular Programs: The size for example, the number of cases and the extent of the geographic area of carrying out and the financial volume of the programs meet the requirements of a regular program i.
Assessment: The implemented programs were if available independently evaluated and adjusted accordingly. Such evaluation preferably include Gender aspects. Relevant Target Groups: The target group s involved in the programs shall be comparable to the one involved in Ukraine elderly people 45plus or at least the programs may be also applicable for the relevant target group of the VS in Ukraine. Involvement of Employment Services: The labour administration should possibly be actively involved in the process of implementation of the program or programs. Possible Transferability: There is practical experience exchange with other countries and at least the lessons learned drawn out of the European experiences on vouchers should support the option of adapted replication in Ukraine.
The criteria 1 to 4 are necessary criteria for the selection of the countries to be analysed. The additional criteria 5 to 8 need not be met in all cases, but are useful because more similar the selected examples of the countries are with the program of Ukraine, the higher the probability of a successful transfer of its experiences to the Ukraine.
From this base the following countries in alphabetical order were selected for the detailed analysis on experiences of voucher systems in the context of ALMP: 1. All programs are extensively evaluated and the results of these assessments Although the most relevant Belgian approach is strongly focussed on the job creation in the services sector and the fact that it seems quite expensive it is used in a dialogue with Greece and Latvia as a good example with a high potential for learning lessons for other European countries possible transferability.
Germany Similar as Belgium the German system of training and placement vouchers is comparatively long tested started in , systematically and scientifically evaluated and renewed accordingly. The German Employment Service ES supported by the Social Partners is the main agent for the practical implementation see annex 4, 5 and 6. The German VS includes all relevant target groups of labour market policy. Five Federal States of Germany had experiences of the transition to a market economy. This is a good basis for the transfer of specific know-how to other transition countries of the former Soviet Union.
Germany is also part of the Peer Review process of the European Employment Strategy and last not least to mention several Federal Sates of the Germany implement additionally to the central ES specific additional voucher based training programs in the field of ALMP. Further it was somehow assessed by the World Bank WB in which led to adaptations resp. Latvia is in dialogue process with Greece and Belgium to improve its VS.
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Based on the above mentioned WB assessment and the exchange process with other countries Latvia is reforming its VS and piloting an ALMP-project with service aspects in child-minding. Italy Trento Italy seems relevant because it has a long experience with vouchers nationally and on regional level. The Region of Trentino started in with its VS while the transfer project was Employed people over 45 were part of the specific categories for the target group. Relevant specific experiences from other European countries f.
Bulgaria, Netherlands, Poland and Switzerland will be added to confirm or to supplement the intelligence provided in most relevant areas, especially if these examples are mentioned as best or good practice by the EU itself. In Bulgaria vouchers for training are applied for training of employed and unemployed.
One person is entitled to one voucher for vocational training and one voucher for training in key competencies. Training institutions are selected by the social partners, which are listed on the website of the PES. There is more than 20 years of experience in the Netherlands with different types of voucher systems including VS as part of the Dutch active labour market policy, especially in form off subsidies for companies hiring long-term unemployed jobseekers. Two voucher programs concerned an annual employer subsidy after hiring a person who had been unemployed for one year.
A training program was introduced in the field of active labour market policy and social security in individual reintegration agreement. All these regular programs had been evaluated and adapted and are very popular. ES are involved in the implementation of the VS and the Netherlands are active in exchange of experiences Peer Review Process with other Europe countries. Switzerland is not member of the EU but has quite substantial experiences with voucher systems in adult education. The effects of the educational VS on employment labour market are evaluated independently. For this reason, it was attempted to improve these systems with the establishment of training voucher systems.
Based on the just above introduced country selection we will now introduce and discuss the above selected relevant and good practices. We will do this in an alphabetical order and start with Belgium. The vouchers can be used to cover direct cost for training or career guidance offered by authorized training agencies quality assurance.
Results, Effectiveness and Impact of the employee and employer training voucher in Belgium The voucher was a success figures see annex 2 : in almost , employees have applied for the program which is limited only by a yearly total budget limit. Evaluations of the program showed that low-skilled 15—16 per cent requests, compared to 28 per cent low-skilled in the total workforce and elderly workers 11—14 percent of requests by employees over 50 years, compared to 17 per cent elderly workers in the total workforce had been underrepresented in the program.
As a consequence, low skilled workers were made available to the voucher without excess. Costs are shared fifty-fifty by the government and the employers. The vouchers can be redeemed with authorized training agencies. The program is particularly directed at small firms. This program for the employers has also been a success. However it was figured out that also in this case the dead weight loss is substantial estimated at up to 80 per cent.
The Service- Voucher-System in Belgium is basically a wage subsidy. Workers paid with service vouchers have a normal employment contract, are paid along legal wage scales, contribute to the social security system and are insured against work-related accidents. The main organisation responsible for the Service Voucher Program is the Federal Public Employment Service and it its decentred local offices.
In , one voucher was priced at 7. The issuing agency deposits a fixed amount for each service voucher in favour of the licensed organization. The difference between this amount and the earnings on behalf of the user is paid by the federal Unemployment Benefit Agency to the issuing agency.
The price of the voucher and the subsidy per voucher is considered to be sufficient to cover the salary cost the gross salary including all regular extras like holiday pay and extra-legal compensations as well as other expenditures, such as the organisation of training sessions, the reimbursement of traffic expenses, insurance costs, and other.
On top of this, the issuing agency is being reimbursed by the federal authorities for its expenses to make the system work administrative support and the printing costs of the vouchers. At the very beginning of the system, in order to boost a flying start, the initial price of the vouchers was even lower. Since then, the price has increased several times. Despite these price increases, the net price of a voucher is still under the average cost price for similar work on the undeclared labour market, which ranges between EUR 7.
This works in a similar way to the paper ones. The call charges are paid by Sodexo. As soon as the firm has validated the data online at most, 5 days after the work was performed , the individual user can either accept or contest the work times recorded. This can be done by telephone or online within a period of four working days. At the end of that period, the work times are validated. Source: Source: Grumiau , p. The last evaluation was implemented in July But the VS also generates also important direct reduction of unemployment benefits and increased social contributions and personal income tax for service voucher workers and indirect companies income tax and social contributions and taxes by administrative staff returns.
Other indirect earn- back effects f. Impact of service vouchers: Listing the impact of the voucher program we have to note the following: 1 The direct creation of jobs: Durable jobs8 for the desired target groups as long term unemployed, low-skilled persons, different ethnic groups and even before non-active labour force are included successfully in the program.
Additional Relevant Impact of the Belgian Service Voucher Increasing the Belgian GDP The creation of new direct jobs and activities as well as the creation of indirect jobs through the employment of staff workers and the increasing hours of work of users, has undoubtedly also an impact on the Belgian GDP. However, the impact of the service voucher system on the Belgian GDP could not be quantified in the different evaluations. Facilitating the work-life balance of users The improvement of work-life balance is one of the most important motives of users to use service vouchers.
Demand continues to grow for the service vouchers as is borne out by the continuous increase in the number of registered users. It may be assumed therefore that the service users are pleased with the opportunity to ease some of their workload and improve their work—life balance. Additionally to mention the employment hours of the users increased significantly by going back to work or working simply more hours and about 2, companies had been created. The participants generally considered it as effective, but comparatively expensive.
As a service sector approach this VS may be relevant for low-skilled jobs and for women. While costly for the government the service voucher system is growing fast and has contributed to the increase in employment in the past two years… In addition, the users of the vouchers have the right to deduce the amount paid from their income, lowering their income tax. The regulation organising the system has been reinforced by a more strict control on the firms and the number of service vouchers allocated to households has reduced.
The fact that more and more migrant workers are involved is a rising concern, because it was not intended importing people from abroad to keep the system alive. The activation of non-active population with intensified training programs might be a solution. Availability of workforce: The sector of household services is very labour intensive. This has a double edge. It provides the potential of creating many jobs, but it also means it needs a large labour supply. If it does not exist, additional measures must be taken to overcome the labour supply constraints. Discrepancy between supply and demand of services: Regional labour markets: In regions with low unemployment rates the consumption of service vouchers has been exploding but the offer of workers decreased.
And vice versa: in some areas characterised by high unemployment figures the consumption of service voucher has traditionally been low. Some companies receive also additional tax deductions linked to employment measures. Inadequate exchange value of service voucher for companies: meaning that the price of the vouchers or of the state subsidy may have to increase even further to make it valuable for companies.
Involvement of the private sector: Companies must be able to build up a business model that allows them to make profits. This means that adequate price setting of the return value of the voucher for the licensed companies must be constantly monitored. A significant difference in price compared to undeclared labour: By making the voucher cheaper than undeclared labour, the voucher is much more attractive.
On the other hand the price of the voucher keeps increasing to sustain the system financially, so the discrepancy with undeclared labour needs continuous follow-up.
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However, certain categories of user can go above this ceiling: Single- parent families, people with disabilities and parents of minors with disabilities , and older people in receipt of the assistance benefit can buy up to 2, service vouchers per calendar year. Adopted on 20 December , the latest modification is intended to reduce public spending in order to reduce the public debt. In order to reduce the federal intervention from EUR In addition, the number of service vouchers per household has been limited, depending on the composition of the household.
Indeed, all objectives seems to have been achieved concerning workers and users. The objective of career prospects has also been achieved as some workers accessed management and administrative functions. Finally, one can said that the objectives of facilitated market entry, quality, sustainability and development perspectives have been met for services providers. However, the objective of market stability has not fully been met, as the system has been regularly modified since its introduction.
Only the labour law requirement will remain the competence of the Federal government. The Regions will be competent to determine the eligible activities, the price and the professional and vocational training aspects. The assignment of the participants was a sole decision by FES, as well the quality control was organized by Federal Employment Service and its local offices. From this changed completely on demand orientation: Local caseworker of the Employment Service can issue training a voucher to unemployed persons. The voucher shall be used within up to 3 months and it defines the educational goal and training duration regionally restricted to daily commuting area.
The voucher recipient has the choice to select an accredited provider offering a certified measure.